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Unit 3 Ecology
Chapter 21 Populations and Communities

 


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Created 12/3/2002

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Previous: Endocrine System and Reproduction        Next: Ecosystems and Biomes

Teacher Resources     Student Extra Credit


21-1 Living Things and the Environment
Habitats
Biotic Factors
Abiotic Factors
Levels of Organization: Population, Community, Ecosystem

21-3 Interactions Among Living Things
Adapting to the Environment
Competition
Predation
Symbiosis

21.2 Studying Populations
Determining Population Size
Changes in Population Size
Limiting Factors

21-4 Changes in Communities
Primary Succession
Secondary Succession


Day 1
readme.gif (802 bytes) Prentice Hall 704-709
Pencil.gif (1165 bytes) RSG 21-1 Living Things & the Environment
Day 6
readme.gif (1442 bytes) Prentice Hall 722-733
Pencil.gif (1165 bytes) RSG 21-3 & 21-4 Populations & Succession
Day 2
Pencil.gif (434 bytes) Population Graph: Albatross and Chicks
Day 7
Lecture.gif (2227 bytes)  Gator Hole Graphics
Day 3
readme.gif (1442 bytes) Prentice Hall 711-718
Pencil.gif (1165 bytes)RSG 21-2 Studying Populations
Day 8
Magnify0b.gif (341 bytes) Dice.bmp (3974 bytes)Clipbirds  
Competition: same beak, different sizes
Day 5
Lecture.gif - 2227 Bytes  The Kaibab Deer  Kaibab Food Pyramid Story
Pencil.gif (1165 bytes) The Lesson of the Kaibab
Pencil.gif (434 bytes) Deer: Predation or Starvation
Day 9
smokey.gif - 1080 Bytes Fire On the Mountain


Day 1
Topic 21-1 Habitats and Biotic-Abiotic Factors
Objectives/ I can...
Explain how organisms may have the same habitat but not the same niche.
State Goals
12.B.2a Describe relationships between various organisms in their environment.
12.B.3a  Identify and classify biotic and abiotic factors in an environment.
12.B.3b Compare and assess features of organisms for the adapatative, competitive, and survival potential.
Classwork-Homework
Chalkboard.bmp (15654 bytes)
On the Board
Habitat:
place where an organism lives, grows and reproduces
Niche:
organism's role, or job, in its habitat
Biotic Factors: The living parts of a habitat
Abiotic Factors: The nonliving parts of an organism's habitat

Note02.gif (247 bytes) Kingfisher and Heron Niche/Habita Diagram

 readme.gif (802 bytes) Prentice Hall 704-709 

 Pencil.gif (1165 bytes) RSG 21-1 Living Things and the Environment

Pencil.gif (1165 bytes)Analyzing an Ecosystem Science Explorer page 52

TEC
Resources
BookOpen.bmp (16686 bytes) Be an Expert: Environmental Science
Note02.gif (247 bytes) Niche   Information from Natureworks.

Pencil.gif (1165 bytes) Science Starter 2

 

Day 2
Topic 21-1 Levels of Organization
Objectives/ I can...
Describe the parts of an ecosystem.
Describe how organisms interact with their environments.
State Goals
12.B.2a Describe relationships between various organisms in their environment.
12.B.3a  Identify and classify biotic and abiotic factors in an environment that affect population density.
12.B.3b Compare and assess features of organisms for the adapatative, competitive, and survival potential.
12.C.1a  Identify and compare sources of energy.
Classwork-Homework
Chalkboard.bmp (15654 bytes)
On the Board
Population:
group of the same kind of organisms living in a certain place
Community:
all the populations that live in a certain place and can interact with one another
Ecosystem:
group of communities interacting with each other and the nonliving parts of their environment
Environment: everything that surrounds an organism and acts upon it
Ecology:
study of the relationship between living things and their environments
Interact:
process of organisms acting upon one another or on the nonliving parts of their environment

 Chalkboard.bmp (15654 bytes) On the Board

Self-Supporting Ecosystem

Production of Energy The sun is the source of energy
Transfer of Energy Sun  >  Plants > Animals
Breakdown of Materials Decomposition by other living things
Recycling Materials needed are used over and over

 Levels of Organization 2:13

Pencil.gif (434 bytes) Population Graph: Albatross and Chicks 

TEC
Resources
Note02.gif - 247 Bytes 
Ecology

 

Day 3
Topic 21-2 Studying Populations
Objectives/ I can...
Describe methods for determining the size of a population.
Explain the causes of changes in population size.
Identify factors that limit population growth.
State Goals
12.B.3a  Identify and classify biotic and abiotic factors in an environment that affect population density.
Classwork-Homework 
readme.gif (1442 bytes) Prentice Hall 711-718

 Pencil.gif (1165 bytes)RSG 21-2 Studying Populations

Note02.gif - 247 Bytes The Lincoln Index
Formula for determining total population using mark-and-recapture

Total Population = Number of Marked  X  Total Number Captured
                                     Number Recaptured with Marks

TEC
Resource
Magnify0b.gif (341 bytes) Brine Shrimp Hatching
Magnify0b.gif (341 bytes) How Many Animals? 
You will conduct your own animal population survey. You will be surveying four different inhabitants of the rainforest.

 

 

Day 4
Topic 21-2 Limiting Factors
Objectives/ I can...
Explain what affects population size.
State Goals
12.B.3a  Identify and classify biotic and abiotic factors in an environment that affect population density.
Classwork-Homework
Chalkboard.bmp (15654 bytes)
On the Board
Limiting Factor:
condition in the environment that put limits on the size of a population can grow to
Range: area where a type of animal or plant population is found
Carrying Capacity: largest population  that can be supported by the available resources of an area
         

 Chalkboard.bmp (15654 bytes) On the Board

Limiting Factors

Plants Water, Sunlight, Type of Soil
Animals Temperature, Water, Food Supply, Shelter, Number of Plants

 Water: Supply and Demand  2:51
Deforestation  8:28
Desertification  4:34
Elephant Seals  4:02

 Magnify0b.gif (341 bytes) Dice.bmp (3974 bytes)Elephant Seal Population
Pencil.gif (1165 bytes) Graph the Population Data

TEC
Resources
Magnify0b.gif (341 bytes)
How Many Bears Can Live In the Forest?

 

Day 5
Topic Kaibab Plateau
Objectives/ I can...
Create a population line graph.
Hypothesize limiting factors.
Infer the affect of a predator prey relationship.
To learn how predator-prey interactions in cause oscillations in population numbers
State Goals
12.B.2a Describe relationships between various organisms in their environment.
12.B.3a  Identify and classify biotic and abiotic factors in an environment that affect population density.
12.B.3b Compare and assess features of organisms for their adapatative, competitive, and survival potential
Classwork-Homework
Kaibab Plateau  2:03
Mountain Lion Kills Deer  2:36

Lecture.gif - 2227 Bytes  The Kaibab Deer  Kaibab Food Pyramid story 

 Pencil.gif (1165 bytes) The Lesson of the Kaibab

 Pencil.gif (434 bytes) Deer: Predation or Starvation

TEC
Pencil.gif (434 bytes) Graphing Population Growth Globe Fearon p.263  Deer/Wolf Graph with directions
Resources
Note02.gif (247 bytes) Kaibab Deer Herd Must Be Reduced Immediately Department of Agriculture Report 10/13/1924
Note02.gif (247 bytes) Kaibab Deer Case: Myth or Reality  An article that refutes the events
 star.gif (2279 bytes) Cheetah and the Antelope

 

Day 6
Topic 21-3 Interactions among Living Things
Objectives/ I can...
Explain how an organism's adaptations help it survive.
Describe the major kinds of interactions among organisms in an ecosystem.
Identify the three types of symbiotic relationships.
State Goals
12.B.3b Compare and assess features of organisms for the adapatative, competitive, and survival potential
Classwork-Homework
readme.gif (1442 bytes) Prentice Hall 722-729

 Pencil.gif (1165 bytes) RSG 21-3 & 21-4 Populations & Succession

TEC
Pencil.gif (1165 bytes) From Pond to Forest Science Explorer page 77
Resources
Dice.bmp (3974 bytes) Animal Jeopardy
Note02.gif (247 bytes) Lecture Notes

 

Day 7
Topic 21-3 Competition and Predation
Objectives/ I can...
Explain how interactions between living things help maintain balance in an ecosystem.
Describe the three types of symbiotic relationships.
State Goals
12.B.3b Compare and assess features of organisms for the adapatative, competitive, and survival potential
Classwork-Homework
Chalkboard.bmp (15654 bytes)
On the Board
Competition:
struggle among organisms for resources in an ecosystem
Predation:
relationship in which an organism kills and eats other organisms
Predator:
organism that kills and eats another organism
Prey:
organism that is killed and eaten by another organism
Symbiosis:
relationship between different species living in close association with one another
Host: organism a parasite feeds on

Chalkboard.bmp (15654 bytes)
On the Board
Symbiotic Relationships
Mutualism:
relationship between organisms that benefits both of them 
Commensalism:
relationship between organisms in which one benefits and the other is unaffected
Parasitism:
relationship between organisms in which one lives on or in another organism and causes it harm 

The Greateed Predators/ Killers of the Animal World  9:59
Symbiosis and Mutualism   2:52
Under the Sea  3:25

 Note02.gif (247 bytes) Gator Hole Notes and Pictures

 Lecture.gif (2227 bytes)  Gator Hole Graphics: Naturescope: Wading Into Wetlands p.40-41 & 44-45 

 Pencil.gif (434 bytes)  Gator Hole Graphics Questions

TEC
Resources

 

Day 8
Topic 21-4 Changes in Communities
Objectives/ I can...
Describe the differences between primary and secondary succession.
State Goals
12.B.2a Describe relationships between various organisms in their environment.
12.B.3b Compare and assess features of organisms for their adapatative, competitive, and survival potential
Classwork-Homework

Magnify0b.gif (341 bytes) Dice.bmp (3974 bytes)Clipbirds   Competition: same beak, different sizes

TEC
Resources

 

Day 9
Topic 21-4 Succession
Objectives/ I can...
Describe how communities of organisms develop.
State Goals
12.B.2a Describe relationships between various organisms in their environment.
Classwork-Homework
Chalkboard.bmp (15654 bytes)
On the Board
Succession:
gradual change in populations of organisms when the environment changes
Primary Succession: changes that occur in an area where no soil or organisms exist
Pioneer Species: first species to populate an area
Climax Community:
last community in a succession

 Chalkboard.bmp (15654 bytes) On the Board
Open Field to Forest

  • Open Field
  • Shrub Land
  • Pine Forest
  • Hardwood Forest

Stages of Forest Succession  4:49
Succession After Fire  1:21
Forest Fires  :34
Firefighting Helicopter Loading Water  1:27
Lake Tahoe Wild Fire  3:13

 Lecture.gif - 2227 Bytes Forest Life Cycle Timeline

smokey.gif - 1080 Bytes Fire On the Mountain

TEC
Resources
Note02.gif (247 bytes) How a Field Becomes a Forest
How is it that barren farm land was able to become the forests of today?
The answer lies in a process known as "succession."
Succession is a natural pattern of ecosystem change that takes place over time.

 

Day 10
Topic Jeopardy
Objectives/ I can...
Answer questions about the environment.
State Goals
12.B.2a Describe relationships between various organisms in their environment.
12.B.3a  Identify and classify biotic and abiotic factors in an environment that affect population density.
Classwork-Homework
Dice.bmp (3974 bytes) Interactions Among Living Things Jeopardy
TEC
Resources 
Magnify0b.gif (341 bytes) Weather and Whooping Cranes Science Explorer pages 81-85


Previous: Endocrine System and Reproduction        Next: Ecosystems and Biomes



TEACHER RESOURCES

 Pencil.gif (1165 bytes) Assignments    crayon0a.gif (328 bytes) Art Activity    Magnify0b.gif - 341 BytesLab      BookOpen.bmp (16686 bytes) Lesson Plan      braininjar.gif (1615 bytes)_Tests     IconMap.bmp (3402 bytes) Maps     Note02.gif (247 bytes) Resources     Earth.gif (6650 bytes) Web Sites    
SchoolBus5.bmp (6174 bytes) Field Trips      Computer.gif (1114 bytes) Computer     bookpages.gif (1592 bytes) Book    Dice.bmp (3974 bytes) Games    star.gif (2279 bytes)Extra Credit     filmstrip.gif (6075 bytes)PPT

 BIOTIC & ABIOTIC
 Magnify0b.gif - 341 Bytes Making Community Measurements: Biotic Factors
 CARRYING CAPACITY
 Earth.gif - 6650 Bytes  Environmental Biology-Ecosystems   How energy moves through an ecosystem.
CONSUMERS
 Magnify0b.gif - 341 Bytes  Wildlife Skull Activities   Observations of an animal’s skull.
 ECOLOGY
 Note02.gif - 247 Bytes Ecology
 Note02.gif - 247 Bytes Ecology: Environmental Education on the Web    An ecology learning site.
ENVIRONMENT
 Pencil.gif (1165 bytes) Snow Lovers or Haters  Students research, both indoors and out, chionophobes, chioneuphores, and chionophiles, and conduct a class quiz and discussion.
LIMITING FACTORS
 Magnify0b.gif (341 bytes) How Many Bears Can Live In the Forest?   Black bears illustrate the importance of suitable habitat for wildlife.
POPULATION
How Many Critters Live Here? Abiotic, Biotoc factors
 Earth.gif (6650 bytes) U.S. Census Bureau    What is the population of the United States? 
 PREDATORS and PREY
 Note02.gif (247 bytes) Wolves: Mammilian Predators
 Note02.gif - 247 Bytes Predator and Prey   Learn about animal predators and their prey. 
SUCCESSION
 Pencil.gif (434 bytes) From Forest to Farm  Analyze an essay on timber harvesting and forest regeneration in Petersham, Massachusetts.
 Earth.gif (6650 bytes)How a Field Becomes a Forest  "Succession," a natural pattern of ecosystem change that takes place over time.




STUDENT EXTRA CREDIT

 

 star.gif - 2279 Bytes Extra Credit star.gif - 2279 Bytes

 star.gif - 2279 Bytes Bermuda Wave Height Graphing Activity  Calculate average wave heights and plot the data.
 star.gif (2279 bytes)State of the States Worksheet  The 2000 Census revealed some interesting facts and trends. No states lost any of their population, but the population is shifting to the west and to the south.  To learn more about how the US changed during the last decade complete the State of the States Worksheet using Table 1: Resident Population of the United States
 star.gif (2279 bytes)World Population 1950-2050   Create a World Population Graph using the data provided.


Previous: Endocrine System and Reproduction        Next: Ecosystems and Biomes