Major Discoveries in Biology

The list below briefly describes some scientific discoveries in the area of life science. Your SciQuest assignment has three parts:

1. Explain One: Take one of the events from this list, find out more about it, and write a paragraph giving some details of the discovery. I'd like to try and take the events in order.

2. Add One: Write one sentence about a biological discovery that has taken place in the past 25 years. The list ends at 1974 and I'd like to add some more recent items to this list.

3. Predict One: Use your imagination to think of a biological discovery that might happen in the near future (~10 years).

Timeline of Major Discoveries in Biology

460 BC Birth of Hippocrates

384 BC Birth of Aristotle

23 Birth of Pliny

129 Birth of Galen

1135 Birth of Maimonides

1275 First record of human dissection

1343 Venice starts commission on public health

1377 City of Ragusa uses isolation ('quarantina") to protect citizens from plague victims

1494 use of mercury in the treatment of syphilis

1530 Otto Brunfels' herbal, Herbarum Vivai Eicones

1530 Fracastoro publishes a long love poem entitled Syphilis

1532 Charles Estienne writes On Disscetion

1535 Cartier's party learns of Native Americans' cure for scurvy

1543 Versalius: De Humani Corporis Fabrica

1546 H. Fracastoro presents first theory that diseases are contageous

1561 Gabriele Fallopius' research on nervous and reproductive systems

1583 Cesalpino classifies plants according to their fruits and flowers

1584 Artificial respiration introduced by Johann Schenk von Grafenberg

1590 Zacgarias Janssen 1st compound microscope

1600 Heironymus Fabricius' On the Form of the Foetus attempts to explain reproduction and development

1603 Fabricius: On the Values of the Veins

1623 Caspar Bauhin devises method for classifying plants

1626 Joseph of Aromatari presents basis for theory of preformation when observing chick embryos

1628 William Harvey publishes De Motu Cordis

1633 Quinine first used in treatment of malaria

1648 Introsuction of "Glauber's salts"

1648 von Helmont measures water uptake in growing tree

1651 Harvey states an early view of epigenesis: "all creatures come from eggs"

1661 Malpighi observes capillaries

1665 Robert Hooke's Micrographia

1667 Richard Lower's blood transfusion from sheep to man

1668 Francesco Redi's experiments on spontaneous generation

1674 Leeuwenhoek observes and describes bacteria and protozoa

1676 Edme Mariotte hypothesizes that plants synthesize food from air and water

1685 One of the earliest reported ecological studies of an Irish peat bog

1693 John Ray provides first sytematic classification of animals

1707 Stahl: phlogiston theory of plant growth

1717 Thomas Fairchild produces hybrid by crossing dianthus and carnation

1727 Stephen Hales famous text Vegetable Staticks

1735 Carolus Linnaeus writes System Naturae to classify living things

1745 Joseph Needham thinks he observes spontaneous generation in hay infustion

1749 Buffon publishes the first volume of Natural History

1752 Reaumur's research on digestion and ilolation of gastric juices

1758 von Haller states an "ovist" view of embryology

1765 Spallanzani repeats Needham's experiments with hay infustion

1766 von Haller classifiew the thyroid, thymus, and spleen as "ductless glands"

1772 Priestly observes that plants release oxygen

1779 Jan Ingenhousz describes carbon cycle, respiration in plants

1786 Luigi Galvani discovers "animal electricity"

1795 British Navy uses limes to prevent scurvy

1796 Edward Jenner: first smallpox vaccination

1798 Malthus: An Essay on the Principal of Population

1799 T. A. Knight investigates tropisms

1804 DeSaussare demonstrates role of water in photosynthesis

1805 Oken suggests primitive form of cell theory

1809 Lamarck's Zoological Philosophy

1819 Shirreff begins series of experiments on hybridization of wheat

1822 William Beaumont begins his observations of digestion in Alexis St. Martin

1824 Prout demonstrates presence of HCl in gastric juices

1828 Wohler synthesises urea

1828 von Baer first observes mammalian egg

1825 Cuvier's book Research on Fossil Bones, the foundation of paleontology

1830 First publication of the Precedings of the Zoological Society of London

1831 Darwin set sail on The Beagle

1831 Robert Brown identifies the nucleus of a cell

1836 Felix Dujardin describes cytoplasm

1836 Plant structure depends soil in which it is grown: Unger

1840 von Liebig on the role of ammonia in plants

1845 Webers discovers inhibitory action of a nerve

1846 Semmelweis tries to introduce antiseptic procedures into hospitals

1855 Pringsheim observes cellular fussion

1856 Journal of the Linnean Society's first issue

1857 Neanderthal fossil discovered

1858 Virschow's Cellular Pathology

1858 Darwin & Wallace report theory of evolution

1862 Julius Sachs demonstrates role of sunlight in photosynthesis

1863 Kerner: early statement of the doctrine of ecological succession

1863 Casimir Davaine identifies bacillus anthracis as cause of anthrax

1865 Claude Bernard: Introduction to Experimental Medicine

1868 First Cromagnon remains found

1869 Friedrich Miescher identifies nucleic acid

1871 Bowditch: "All-or-none" rule of nerve action

1871 The Descent of Man

1874 Ernst Haechel: "Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny"

1875 Mitosis in plants (Strasburger)

1878 Joseph Lister: antiseptic surgery

1879 Fol sees union of sperm & ovum in animal

1880 Laverau discovers the cause of malaria

1881 Pasteur's research on anthrax

1882 Ringer's solution

1882 Mitosis in animals (Flemming)

1883 Francis Galton's eugenics movement

1884 Hans Christiam Jochim Gram's discovery

1885 First series of rabies injections

1885 van Benedeu discovers meiosis

1886 Berthelot demonstrates fixing of nitrogen by bacteria

1888 Waldeyer uses the term "chromosome" for the first time

1888 Roux's experiments on frog embryos

1891 Henking discovers the "X-chromosome"

1892 August Weismann's Theory of Germ Plasm

1893 Smith and Kilborne outline cycle for Texas cattle fever

1895 First book on ecology (Warming)

1896 Christiaan Eijkman's studies on beri-beri

1897 Bucher learns that extracts from yeast cells cause fermentation

1897 Benda describes mitochondria

1898 Pavlov begins research on "conditional responses"

1900 Mendel's work rediscovered

1901 Aldrich adn Takamine isolate adrenaline

1902 Sutton and Boveri: chromosomal theory of inheritance

1902 Landsteiner announces four "blood types"

1902 Walter Sutton suggests that genes are physical units on chromosomes

1905 Bayliss and Starling demonstrate existence and behavior of hormones

1905 Blackman shows that photosynthesis involves both "light" and "dark" reactions

1907 Ross Harrison develops an important tissue culture technique

1908 Statement of the Hardy-Wienberg law

1908 Nilsson-Ehle provieds experimental evidence for "multiple gene hypothesis"

1910 Thomas Hunt Morgan: Gene theory of inherritance

1912 Funk suggests the name "vitamine"

1913 Discovery of vitamin A

1915 Friedrick Twort describes bacteriophage

1915 Yamagiwa adn Ichikawa discover chemical carcinogens

1916 Calvin Bridges provides experimental proof for Sutton's hypothesis of 1902

1920 Banting and Best isolate insulin

1924 Australopithecus africanus

1925 Scopes trial

1926 Chromosome inversions predicted by C.B. Bridges

1927 H.J. Muller induces mutations with X-rays

1928 Alexander Flemming's discovery of penecillin

1929 Zondek and Ascheim discover estrone

1930 R.A. Fisher and S. Wright provide mathematical foundations for population genetics

1932 Kroll and Ruska: first electron microscope

1932 Gerhard Domagk: sulfanilamide

1933 Thadeus Reichstein synthesizes ascorbic acid

1935 Wendell Stanley prepares virus in crystalline form

1935 Fritz Zernicke: first phase contrast microscope

1940 Rene Dubos discovers gramicidin & tyrocidin

1940 The Krebs Cycle

1941 Beadle and Tatum: One-gene, one-enzyme hypothesis

1944 Avery, McLeod, and McCarty show that DNA controls heredity effects

1946 Genetic recombination demonstrated

1951 American Institute of Biological Science formed

1953 Watson and Crick provide a model for DNA

1953 Stanley Miller experiment produces amino acid in "possible primitive earth conditions"

1953 Sanger and Tuppy announce amino acid sequence in insulin

1957 Isaacs discovers interferon

1958 Lederberg discovers plasmids

1959 Moore and Stein determine the chemical structure of the ribonucleuse

1959 L.S.B. Leaky reports the find of fossil man Zinjanthropus

1961 Norenberg and Ochoa "crack" DNA and messenger RNA codes

1963 John Enders isolates measles vaccine

1967 Kornberg, Goulian, and Sinsheimer synthesize DNA molecule

1967 David Harker and associates discover the sequence of 124 amino acids in ribonuclease

1967 Dr. Christian Bernard: first heart transplant

1967 Weiss & Green fuse mouse and human cells

1968 First amniacentesis in diagnosing fetus

1969 Gutte and Merrifield complete chemical synthesis of ribonucleuse

1974 Concerned geneticists call for ban on certain types of genetic research

1974 First totally successful fertilization of human ovum outside human body