10-3 Athens
Last Updated     6/6/2011    8/25/2007

Smith Social Studies Plans

 

Athens first ruled by kings.

In 750 BC, Government taken over by nobles, merchants, and manufacturers.
They set up an oligarchy, rule by a few.
Fights between rulers, artisans, and farmers over land ownership.
the Upper Class knew that the government needed a change.

Draco
Draco changed the law by using harsh punishments.
Steal an apple and you could be put to death.

Solon
In 594 BC, Solon prepared a constitution.
It broke the political power of the rich.
Solon erased all debts.
Freed forced enslavement for debt.
Offered citizenship to non-Athenians.

Pleisistratus
560 BC, Pleisistratus, supported by lower class, divided up farms.

Cleisthenes: A Democratic Constitution
In 508 BC, Cleisthenes put into effect first democtratic constitution.
Gave "Freedom of speech."

Assembly
Assembly opened to all mals over 20.
Assembly elected ten generals to run the army and navy.
Council of 500 handled daily business of Athens.
Chosen by lot, money or elequence, would not matter.

Education
Citizens were required to educate their children.
Boys had a tutor or attended a private school.
Studied writing, mathematics, and music.
They practiced sports and memorized the works of Homer
.
At age 18 they became citizens.
In the Temple of Zeus they would take an oath of citizenship.

The Persian Wars

The Delian League and the Athenian Empire
Pesians still ruled Ionia.
Greek city-states, led by Athens, formed a protective group.
Headquarters was on island of Delos.

Sparta did not join.
League had a common navy.
Ships built and crewed by Athens.
Other city-states paid.
Athens gailed more power.
Delian League became Atnenian Empire.
Pericles rebuilt Athens and the "Long Walls."
Long Walls connected Athens and its seaport of Pireaus
some 5 miles away.
Pericles led Athens during its "Golden Age."

Decline of Athens
Anti-Athenian feelings spread throughout Greece.
Athens attacked an ally of Sparta.
Sparta declared war on Athens.
The Peloponnesian Wars lasted 30 years.
A plague strikes Athens.
It was typhus or a highly malignant form of scarlet fever.
In 404 BC, Athens surrendered to Sparta.
Athens had to tear down their "Long Walls."
Thousands of young Athenian men left to become mercenaries in the Persian Army.
Sparta set up an oligarchy, and 30 Athenian aristocrats ruled.
Athenians later revolted and set up a democracy.
They were never again powerful as they once were.